Author: Matt

Home / Articles posted by Matt (Page 2)
Roofing for Dummies

Roofing for Dummies

Roofing for Dummies — Common Roofing Terms Explained


Like any trade, roofing has a long list of technical terms that are everyday words for experts but can be like another language to the layperson. This not only means you may not understand what your roofing company is telling you, but also you might struggle to explain what you need.


While at Empire we do our best to communicate clearly, some technical terms are unavoidable. Here’s a rundown of the most common.


Types of Roof


  • Pitched roof — a rood with sloping sides, rising to a ridge, most often of tiles or slates. They can be gable roofs, with two sloping sides and triangular sides, or hip roofs, with all four sides pitched.
  • Flat roof — a horizontal covering (no more than a 15-degree pitch), usually covered with felt, which may be torched on.


Features of a Pitched Roof


  • Ridge — the horizontal line where the sloped sides meet at the top, with V-shaped tiles forming the ridge and offering waterproofing protection.
  • Truss — a triangular wooden frame providing support for the roof.
  • Battens — strips across the joists that secure the tiles or slates, usually made of metal, wood or plastic.
  • Fascia/Barge board — vertical boards below the bottom of a pitched roof, covering the gap.
  • Soffits — horizontal boards between the fascia and wall, sealing the gap.
  • Eaves — the bottom of a pitched roof, including the fascias and soffits outside and often used for storage inside.
  • Dormer — a vertical window protruding from a pitched roof.
  • Valley — the angle where two sloping roofs meet.
  • Vents — openings, often in the soffits, to allow the interior space to be ventilated and avoid condensation.


Features of a Flat Roof


  • Substrate/sheathing — the surface, often a timber deck, that the roof is laid on.
  • Insulation — a layer principally to prevent heat escaping through the roof, but sometimes also used for sound-proofing or fire resistance.
  • Vapour barrier — a layer to prevent moisture from escaping.
  • Waterproofing — the outer layer, made from metal, asphalt, slate, tile, wood etc.


Features Common to Both


  • Joists — the horizontal supports for the roof
  • Underlay — a thin waterproof layer over the rafters, usually of asphalt or PVC sheeting.
  • Void — the space between the underside of the roof and the ceiling, often the loft.
  • Flashings — sheets typically set into the cement of walls or chimneys to protect joints. They are most often made of lead, though roofers sometimes use other materials.


These are just the most common roofing terms. You’re very welcome to give us a call if you’re mystified by any other terminology.

Five Steps for a Well-Maintained Roof

Five Steps for a Well-Maintained Roof

Your roof keeps the rain, wind and cold out; it helps to maintain the building’s structural integrity; and, of course, it helps your home look attractive. But it can’t do any of this unless you make sure it stays in good shape.

Here are five things you can do to keep it that way.

1. Make Regular Visual Checks

Besides periodic close-up checks, you can keep your eyes open all the time. From outside, you may be able to see from below any broken tiles or flashing, or any sign of the roof is sagging.

You can also keep a look-out indoors, especially checking for any damp patches on ceilings after rain. It can also be useful to go up into the loft or attic and look for daylight through the roof, showing a hole.

2. Check Your Guttering

The guttering and downpipes can be prevented from draining the water off your roof if they’re clogged up with leaves and debris, so they should be cleared out at least twice a year. If you have the correct equipment and plenty of experience of working at height, you could do this yourself, but it’s generally better to have it done professionally.

3. Check Your Loft Space

Besides looking for holes, it’s also important to check your loft space for signs of rot, mould or mildew on the timbers or underside of the roof. This can be prevented by making sure space is well ventilated and also keeping your loft space fully insulated.

4. Keep Your Roof Clean

Whether you have a slate, tiled or felt roof, it’s easy for moss and mould to grow over it and, besides being unsightly, they can damage the materials. Look out for this in your visual checks, and get the growth cleaned off as soon as possible.

5. Close-Up Checks

While visual checks from a distance can be done frequently and casually, you also need to get up to the roof and check from close up at least once a year, and any time after a storm. What you’re looking for here, among other things, is broken tiles or torn membrane, damaged flashing, fascias and soffits, broken brickwork on the chimneys and sagging roof ridges.

An experienced DIYer can make these checks, but any repair work will need to be done by professional roofers. It may be worth your while to have the checks made professionally, too, so that any repairs can be undertaken straight away.

If you want to know more about maintaining your roof, feel free to give us a call.

How to Make the Most out of Your Roof Space

How to Make the Most out of Your Roof Space

On the whole, we use the roof of our home purely to protect us from the elements. That’s it’s primary purpose, of course, and if it’s doing the job properly that’s good enough.

On the other hand, the roof represents a large expanse we’re not making full use of. It’s easiest with a flat roof, but even a pitched roof can be used. Here are a few suggestions to help you make the most out of your roof space.

Roof Terrace

A flat stretch of the roof can be easily converted into a roof terrace. You’ll need to make sure, though, that the construction’s strong enough to take the extra weight and footfall.

This is especially useful in an urban setting where there isn’t enough room for a patio in the garden. Instead, you can relax, eat or entertain high above the hustle and bustle. All you need is some good weather.

Roof Garden

Alternatively, a flat roof can be converted into a roof garden. This can be anything from plants in pots or urns to laying a deep enough level of soil to grow shallow-rooted plants. You could also include turfed areas.

A roof garden makes an ideal bird oasis if you set up bird tables, baths and feeders. The best thing is that the birds will be safe from the neighbourhood cats.

Solar Panels

Whether you have a flat or pitched roof, you can make use of it to slash your energy bills and help protect the environment at the same time. Installing solar panels will reduce the amount of energy you have to take from the National Grid.

If you combine this with the right level of loft insulation, which is fairly inexpensive to install, you can reduce your costs and your carbon footprint in one step.

Roof Windows

If you’re making use of your loft, the cheapest and most effective way to provide lighting for it is to install roof windows. Fitting a couple of skylights will illuminate the loft far more efficiently than any artificial lighting without adding to your energy bill.

For a more ambitious loft conversion, you could go further and have dormer windows installed in your pitched roof. They’ll give your roofline an elegant, traditional look and can give you a great view from your loft or attic.

These are just a few of the many ways you can put your roof space to good use. If you want to discuss your options, feel free to give us a call.

What Is Roof Flashing and Why Do You Need It?

What Is Roof Flashing and Why Do You Need It?

Flashing can be vital for many places in the structure of your house, from the door to the foundations. Most of all, though, it’s the roof that needs this kind of protection from water damage.

So what is roof flashing? And why exactly is it so essential?

What Is Roof Flashing?

Flashing is a strip of waterproof material, often but not always metal, that covers a joint in a building’s structure where water could seep through the crack. The correct material is crucial. Mortar or concrete, for example, may cover the gap, but they can be eroded away over time and end up useless.

Many places on the roof will need flashing — anywhere there’s a joint or where masonry comes through the roof. Chimney stacks and dormer windows are among the most traditional places, but flashing can also be needed in roof valleys or around skylights, vents or solar panels.

What Is Roof Flashing Made Of?

Most often, roof flashing is made of strips of metal. Lead is traditional and has many advantages — it can last up to 500 years and it’s easy to recycle when it does reach the end of its life.

Doubts have been raised, though, about its toxic properties. Although this can be reduced by coating the lead in waterproof paint, other metals such as aluminium, copper or zinc are sometimes used instead.

Non-metallic flashing is also becoming increasingly popular. This can be made of rubber, uPVC or even roofing felt. The choice isn’t always just personal preference, though, since some materials are unsuitable for particular environments. For instance, if your home is near the coast, the salt in the air may corrode some metals, so copper, aluminium or non-metallic materials would be recommended.

Why Do You Need Roof Flashing?

The purpose of roof flashing is to stop water getting through the weak points in the structure of your roof and doing damage inside. This was recognised long before metal sheeting was available, let alone materials like uPVC, and various strategies were used to protect the roof.  These included angling the shingles away from the joint or creating steps on the chimney to guide the water away.

Roof flashing not only protects the interior structure of your roof against problems like rot, mildew and mould, it can also enhance the appearance — as long as it’s fitted expertly by a professional who knows the right solution for your roof. Feel free to give us a call if you want to discuss your roof flashing needs.

Why Is My Roof Leaking? How to Find and Fix a Roof Leak

Why Is My Roof Leaking? How to Find and Fix a Roof Leak

A roof leak can be difficult to detect, but it’s liable to do damage out of all proportion with its size. It’s vital to get it fixed before water starts to rot timbers or infect your plaster with damp and mould. But how do you find a leak?

What Causes Roof Leaks?

The two main causes of roof leaks are the wear and tear caused by time and extreme weather. In practice, though, the cause is usually a combination of the two — a storm or extreme cold finishing off already eroded tiles

Any part of the roof can be damaged, and in most cases, this can lead to leaks. The most common vulnerable areas are:

  • The tiles or slates
  • The ridge
  • The flashing
  • Any roof valleys

How to Find a Roof Leak

The most obvious sign that you may have a leak is if you notice stains on your ceiling. However, some damage will have done by then, so it’s as well to be proactive about looking for damage.

It’s advisable to check your roof at least a couple of times a year, as well as straight after incidents like a storm or heavy icing. You don’t necessarily have to climb up. Using binoculars can show worn, cracked or missing tiles, cracks in brickwork or loose flashing.

If you suspect you have a leak, you can go into your loft space in the daytime, turn off all lighting and look for pinpricks of light. A more extreme method is for one person to go up on the roof and spray a hosepipe around. Another person in the loft can pinpoint where the water’s coming through.

How to Fix a Roof Leak

If the damage is slight (e.g. a single cracked tile or missing mortar), an expert DIYer with a good head for heights should be able to manage it. The minimum you’ll need is a professional-standard roof ladder or a scaffold tower, but you should also invest in tethers for yourself and your tools.

A tile can be replaced by lifting the two tiles above it on wedges, then lifting the broken tile with a trowel and replacing it, hooking the nib over the batten. Brickwork or the ridge can be repointed, while lead flashing can be either refixed or replaced.

It’s crucial that the work is done properly, though, or you could make things worse. If you’re not confident about your skills, or if the job is at all complex, give us a call and let the professionals safeguard your roof.

Three Reasons Why Roof Ventilation Is Important

Three Reasons Why Roof Ventilation Is Important

Roof Ventialtion


At first sight, ventilating the roof space might seem counter-intuitive. After all, we put a lot of effort into keeping the heat in and making our homes more energy efficient. Why would we deliberately let outside air in?

In fact, it’s precisely because modern homes tend to be so energy efficient that good roof ventilation has become so crucial. There are various reasons for this.



The biggest damager of a poorly ventilated roof space is condensation. The warm, damp air in the loft rises to the highest point it can reach, but if there’s no colder air coming in to replace it, it can’t escape. This means it stays around for long enough for moisture to condense over all the surfaces.


This produces rot in the woodwork, including the joists and fixtures, which can result in structural damage. It can also degrade your insulation, making it work less effectively, as well as creating mould on wallpaper, plaster and paintwork throughout the house.


If you have vents to allow cooler air into the lower part of the loft, this replaces the warm air, letting it escape. The moisture it carries isn’t around long enough to affect the woodwork or any other internal surfaces.

Air Quality


The importance of air quality in workplaces has been understood for a while, but the issue is just as important in your home. Stagnant air, especially if it’s damp, is perfect for a variety of harmful bacteria to breed.


It’s even worse if condensation has led to mould developing, since mould spores in a building’s atmosphere can be extremely hazardous to health. Typical symptoms of poor air quality include tiredness, lethargy, headaches, dry or itchy skin and eye irritation. This can be avoided by ensuring that the air is circulating efficiently.

Ice Damage to Your Roof


It may seem strange that warm air could contribute to ice damaging your roof, but this can happen when it snows. The reason is that the air warms up the roof, melting the snow. However, when the run-off reaches the eaves, the warmth has gone, and it refreezes into ice.


Although snow can damage your roof, ice is far worse. It warps the roofing materials, insinuates itself into the tiny cracks and widens them, leaving access for water. Good ventilation makes the roof a more even temperature, so you’ll only have the less-damaging snow-cover to deal with.


If you’re not sure whether your roof space is adequately ventilated, why not give us a call and we can have a look.